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Diamond Education

Understanding the Four Cs of diamonds is essential when evaluating and selecting a diamond for purchase. These four criteria—Carat Weight, Cut, Color, and Clarity—provide a comprehensive framework for assessing the quality and value of a diamond. Diamond education refers to the process of learning about diamonds, including their properties, characteristics, grading, and the various factors that determine their quality and value. This education can be beneficial for both consumers looking to purchase diamonds and individuals in the diamond industry, such as jewelers, gemologists, and diamond dealers.

diamond 4 cs

Diamond Formation

Diamonds are formed deep within the Earth's mantle under conditions of extreme heat and pressure. The process of diamond formation involves the following steps:

  1. Carbon Source: The primary element in diamonds is carbon. Carbon atoms are typically derived from the remnants of organic material, such as plants and animals, that have been buried and subjected to extreme heat and pressure over millions of years. These carbon atoms are then transported into the Earth's mantle through geological processes like plate tectonics.

  2. High Pressure: Diamonds form at depths of approximately 90 to 120 miles (150 to 200 kilometers) below the Earth's surface. At these depths, the pressure can reach several gigapascals (GPa), which is equivalent to the pressure exerted by billions of tons of rock. This immense pressure is necessary for the carbon atoms to arrange themselves into the tight crystal lattice structure that characterizes diamonds.

  3. High Temperature: The high temperatures in the Earth's mantle, typically between 2,200°C and 1,200°C (3,992°F and 2,192°F), provide the thermal energy needed for carbon atoms to bond and form diamonds.

  4. Transport to the Surface: Diamonds are brought closer to the Earth's surface through volcanic activity. Kimberlite and lamproite volcanic pipes or fissures act as conduits, carrying diamonds and other minerals to the surface. The rapid ascent through these pipes can preserve diamonds, preventing them from converting back into graphite, their most stable form at surface conditions.

  5. Cooling and Solidification: As the molten rock, or magma, containing diamonds rises to the surface, it cools and solidifies. During this process, diamonds crystallize and become embedded in a rock called kimberlite or lamproite.

  6. Erosion and Exposure: Over geological time, the host rock weathers and erodes, releasing diamonds from the volcanic pipe. These eroded diamond-bearing rocks may be transported by rivers and streams, and as they are further weathered, the diamonds are eventually separated from the rock and deposited in alluvial deposits, riverbeds, and ocean floors.

It's important to note that while diamonds form deep within the Earth, they are not accessible until they are brought to the surface through volcanic activity or other geological processes. The journey from their formation to the surface can take millions to billions of years. This natural process, coupled with the extreme conditions under which diamonds are created, contributes to their rarity and value.

Why are diamonds treated?

Treated diamonds are diamonds that have undergone various processes or treatments to enhance their appearance, quality, or value. These treatments are intended to improve certain characteristics of the diamond and are a common practice in the diamond industry. It's important to note that treated diamonds should always be disclosed and sold as such to maintain transparency and ethical standards in the jewelry market. Here are some common treatments for diamonds:


  1. Laser Drilling: As mentioned earlier, laser drilling is a treatment that involves using a high-energy laser to remove or reduce the visibility of internal inclusions in a diamond, thereby enhancing its clarity. The resulting channels may sometimes be filled with a clear substance to further improve clarity.

  2. Fracture Filling: Fracture filling, also known as "clarity enhancement," involves injecting a clear substance (usually a glass-like material) into surface-reaching fractures or cavities within a diamond. This treatment improves the diamond's clarity by making the fractures less visible. Fracture-filled diamonds should be clearly disclosed as such because the treatment can affect the durability and long-term stability of the stone.

  3. Color Irradiation: Some diamonds are exposed to controlled radiation to alter their color. This process can change a diamond from a less desirable color to a more marketable one. However, irradiated diamonds are typically heat-treated afterward to stabilize the color.

  4. High-Temperature Annealing: High-temperature annealing is a heat treatment process that can enhance a diamond's color. It is used to alter the appearance of certain colored diamonds, such as brown or yellow diamonds, by modifying the arrangement of atoms within the crystal lattice.

  5. Coating: Some diamonds are coated with a thin layer of a synthetic substance to alter their color or improve their appearance. Coatings can wear off over time and are generally not considered a permanent treatment.

  6. HPHT (High-Pressure High-Temperature) Treatment: HPHT is used to improve a diamond's color by subjecting it to extreme heat and pressure. This treatment can transform brown or gray diamonds into colorless or near-colorless stones.

  7. Cavity Filling: Similar to fracture filling, cavity filling involves injecting a clear material into cavities or voids within a diamond to improve clarity and overall appearance.

It's crucial for consumers to be aware of any diamond treatments when making a purchase. Reputable jewelers and sellers are expected to provide full disclosure about treated diamonds and offer documentation, such as grading reports from reputable gemological laboratories, to inform buyers about any treatments the diamond has undergone. Transparency in the buying process ensures that consumers make informed decisions and understand the characteristics of the diamond they are purchasing.

Caring for your diamond

  1. Mild Soapy Water: The safest way to clean your diamond jewelry at home is to use a solution of warm, soapy water. Mix a few drops of mild dish soap in a bowl of warm water.

  2. Soak and Brush: Gently soak your diamond jewelry in the soapy water for a few minutes to loosen any dirt and oils. Then, use a soft brush (a soft toothbrush works well) to gently scrub around the diamond and in the setting to remove any remaining residue.

  3. Rinse Thoroughly: Rinse your jewelry under warm running water to remove all soap residues. Make sure to use a fine-mesh strainer or plug the sink to avoid losing small pieces.

  4. Pat Dry: Carefully pat your jewelry dry with a lint-free, soft cloth. Avoid using tissues or paper towels, which can leave behind lint.

  5. Ultrasonic Cleaners: You can also use an ultrasonic jewelry cleaner if you have one. However, make sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions and only use it on jewelry that is in good condition (no loose stones or damaged settings).

  6. Professional Cleaning: Periodically, it's a good idea to have your diamond jewelry professionally cleaned and checked by a jeweler. They can inspect the setting and make any necessary repairs or adjustments.

Additional Tips:

  • Avoid touching the diamond with your fingers while cleaning; oils from your skin can leave fingerprints.

  • If your diamond has a special coating or treatment (such as a fracture filling), consult the jeweler for specific care instructions.

  • Do not use abrasive cleaners, toothpaste, or other household products, as they can scratch or damage the diamond or metal.

Regular cleaning and maintenance will keep your diamonds looking their best and help preserve their beauty for years to come.

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